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Bujnicki Lab Homepage

DDS in Homo sapiens

DNA damage signaling

(also known as DNA damage checkpoint)

Proteins:
ATM
ATR
ATRIP
BLM
BRCA1
CCNH
CDK7 (CDKs)
CDKN1A (p21)
CHEK1 (CHK1)
CHEK2 (CHK2)
COPS5
DCLRE1A
DCLRE1B
FANCA
FANCC
GPS1
HUS1
MDC1
MNAT1
MRE11A
NBN (NBS1)
RAD1
RAD17
RAD18
RAD23A
RAD50
RAD9A
RFC1
RFC2
RFC3
RFC4
RFC5
TOPBP1
TP53
Enzymatic
complexes:
(9-1-1) clamp
RFC complex


DNA damage is a common event and probably leads to mutation or deletion within chromosomal DNA, which may cause cancer or premature aging. DNA damage induces several cellular responses including DNA repair, checkpoint activity and the triggering of apoptotic pathways. DNA damage checkpoints are associated with biochemical pathways that end delay or arrest of cell-cycle progression. These checkpoints engage damage sensor proteins, such as the RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 (9-1-1) complex, and the RAD17–RFC complex, in the detection of DNA damage and transduction of signals to ATM, ATR, CHK1 and CHK2 kinases. CHK1 and CHK2 kinases regulate CDC25, p21 and p53 that ultimately inactivate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) which inhibit cell-cycle progression.


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