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TREX1

Protein FULL name:

three prime repair exonuclease 1 isoform b [Homo sapiens].


TREX1 (Homo sapiens) is product of expression of TREX1 gene.






FUNCTION: Exonuclease with a preference for double stranded DNA with mismatched 3' termini. May play a role in DNA repair.

CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: Exonucleolytic cleavage in the 3'- to 5'- direction to yield nucleoside 5'-phosphates.

COFACTOR: Magnesium. Required for activity. Substitution with Mn(2+) results in partial activity (By similarity).

SUBUNIT: Homodimer.

SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Nucleus (By similarity).

TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Detected in thymus, spleen, liver, brain, heart, small intestine and colon.

DISEASE: Defects in TREX1 are the cause of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome type 1 (AGS1) [MIM:225750]. A form of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by cerebral atrophy, leukoencephalopathy, intracranial calcifications, chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytosis, increased CSF alpha-interferon, and negative serologic investigations for common prenatal infection. Clinical features as thrombocytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and elevated hepatic transaminases along with intermittent fever may erroneously suggest an infective process. Severe neurological dysfunctions manifest in infancy as progressive microcephaly, spasticity, dystonic posturing and profound psychomotor retardation. Death often occurs in early childhood. AGS1 inheritance can be autosomal recessive or dominant.

DISEASE: Note=Defects in TREX1 are involved in common forms of systemic lupus erythematosus.

DISEASE: Defects in TREX1 are the cause of chilblain lupus (CHBL) [MIM:610448]. Chilblain lupus, a rare cutaneous form of systemic lupus erythematosus. Affected individuals present with painful bluish-red papular or nodular lesions of the skin in acral locations precipitated by cold and wet exposure at temperatures less than 10 degrees centigrade.

DISEASE: Defects in TREX1 are the cause of cerebro-retinal vasculopathy (CRV) [MIM:192315]. CRV is a microvascular endotheliopathy with middle-age onset. This retinal vasculopathy is characterized by telangiectasias, microaneurysms and retinal capillary obliteration starting in the macula. Diseased cerebral white matter has prominent small infarcts that often coalesce to pseudotumors.

SIMILARITY: Belongs to the exonuclease superfamily. TREX family.

CAUTION: The gene for this protein is either identical to or adjacent to that of ATRIP. Some of the mRNAs that encode ATRIP also encode TREX1 in another reading frame.

SEQUENCE CAUTION: Sequence=AAD48774.2; Type=Erroneous initiation;

WEB RESOURCE: Name=GeneReviews; [LINK]

WEB RESOURCE: Name=NIEHS-SNPs; [LINK]


NCBI GenPept GI number(s): 18375535
Species: Homo sapiens

Links to other databases:

Database ID Link
Uniprot Q9NSU2 Q9NSU2
PFAM: - Q9NSU2 (Link - using uniprot id)
InterPro: - Q9NSU2 (Link - using uniprot id)
CATH: - -
SCOP: - -
PDB: - -


Protein sequence:
MGSQALPPGPMQTLIFFDMEATGLPFSQPKVTELCLLAVHRCALESPPTS
QGPPPTVPPPPRVVDKLSLCVAPGKACSPAASEITGLSTAVLAAHGRQCF
DDNLANLLLAFLRRQPQPWCLVAHNGDRYDFPLLQAELAMLGLTSALDGA
FCVDSITALKALERASSPSEHGPRKSYSLGSIYTRLYGQSPPDSHTAEGD
VLALLSICQWRPQALLRWVDAHARPFGTIRPMYGVTASARTKPRPSAVTT
TAHLATTRNTSPSLGESRGTKDLPPVKDPGALSREGLLAPLGLLAILTLA
VATLYGLSLATPGE

TREX1 (Homo sapiens) is able to recognize following damages:
TREX1 (Homo sapiens) belongs to following protein families:
References:

Title Authors Journal
A human DNA editing enzyme homologous to the Escherichia coli DnaQ/MutD protein. Hoss M, Robins P, Naven TJ, Pappin DJ, Sgouros J, Lindahl T EMBO J July 1, 1999
Identification and expression of the TREX1 and TREX2 cDNA sequences encoding mammalian 3'-->5' exonucleases. Mazur DJ, Perrino FW J Biol Chem July 9, 1999
Structure and expression of the TREX1 and TREX2 3' --> 5' exonuclease genes. Mazur DJ, Perrino FW J Biol Chem May 4, 2001
Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S Nat Genet Feb. 1, 2004
The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J Genome Res Oct. 1, 2004
Mutations in the gene encoding the 3'-5' DNA exonuclease TREX1 cause Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome at the AGS1 locus. Crow YJ, Hayward BE, Parmar R, Robins P, Leitch A, Ali M, Black DN, van Bokhoven H, Brunner HG, Hamel BC, Corry PC, Cowan FM, Frints SG, Klepper J, Livingston JH, Lynch SA, Massey RF, Meritet JF, Michaud JL, Ponsot G, Voit T, Lebon P, Bonthron DT, Jackson AP, Barnes DE, Lindahl T Nat Genet Aug. 1, 2006
Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M Cell Nov. 3, 2006
The full-ORF clone resource of the German cDNA Consortium. Bechtel S, Rosenfelder H, Duda A, Schmidt CP, Ernst U, Wellenreuther R, Mehrle A, Schuster C, Bahr A, Blocker H, Heubner D, Hoerlein A, Michel G, Wedler H, Kohrer K, Ottenwalder B, Poustka A, Wiemann S, Schupp I BMC Genomics Jan. 1, 2007
Heterozygous mutations in TREX1 cause familial chilblain lupus and dominant Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome. Rice G, Newman WG, Dean J, Patrick T, Parmar R, Flintoff K, Robins P, Harvey S, Hollis T, O'Hara A, Herrick AL, Bowden AP, Perrino FW, Lindahl T, Barnes DE, Crow YJ Am J Hum Genet April 1, 2007
A mutation in TREX1 that impairs susceptibility to granzyme A-mediated cell death underlies familial chilblain lupus. Lee-Kirsch MA, Chowdhury D, Harvey S, Gong M, Senenko L, Engel K, Pfeiffer C, Hollis T, Gahr M, Perrino FW, Lieberman J, Hubner N J Mol Med May 1, 2007
Mutations in the gene encoding the 3'-5' DNA exonuclease TREX1 are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lee-Kirsch MA, Gong M, Chowdhury D, Senenko L, Engel K, Lee YA, de Silva U, Bailey SL, Witte T, Vyse TJ, Kere J, Pfeiffer C, Harvey S, Wong A, Koskenmies S, Hummel O, Rohde K, Schmidt RE, Dominiczak AF, Gahr M, Hollis T, Perrino FW, Lieberman J, Hubner N Nat Genet Sept. 1, 2007
C-terminal truncations in human 3'-5' DNA exonuclease TREX1 cause autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy. Richards A, van den Maagdenberg AM, Jen JC, Kavanagh D, Bertram P, Spitzer D, Liszewski MK, Barilla-Labarca ML, Terwindt GM, Kasai Y, McLellan M, Grand MG, Vanmolkot KR, de Vries B, Wan J, Kane MJ, Mamsa H, Schafer R, Stam AH, Haan J, de Jong PT, Storimans CW, van Schooneveld MJ, Oosterhuis JA, Gschwendter A, Dichgans M, Kotschet KE, Hodgkinson S, Hardy TA, Delatycki MB, Hajj-Ali RA, Kothari PH, Nelson SF, Frants RR, Baloh RW, Ferrari MD, Atkinson JP Nat Genet Sept. 1, 2007
A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation. Dephoure N, Zhou C, Villen J, Beausoleil SA, Bakalarski CE, Elledge SJ, Gygi SP Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A Aug. 5, 2008
Evaluation of the low-specificity protease elastase for large-scale phosphoproteome analysis. Wang B, Malik R, Nigg EA, Korner R Anal Chem Dec. 15, 2008


Last modification of this entry: Oct. 11, 2010.

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