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"Isolation of cDNA clones encoding a human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease that corrects DNA repair and mutagenesis defects in E. coli xth (exonuclease III) mutants."

Robson CN, Hickson ID

Published Oct. 25, 1991 in Nucleic Acids Res volume 19 .

Pubmed ID: 1719477

Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in cellular DNA are considered to be both cytotoxic and mutagenic, and can arise spontaneously or following exposure to DNA damaging agents. We have isolated cDNA clones which encode an endonuclease, designated HAP1 (human AP endonuclease 1), that catalyses the initial step in AP site repair in human cells. The predicted HAP1 protein has an Mr of 35,500 and shows striking sequence similarity (93% identity) to BAP 1, a bovine AP endonuclease enzyme. Significant sequence homology to two bacterial DNA repair enzymes, E. coli exonuclease III and S. pneumoniae ExoA proteins, and to Drosophila Rrp1 protein is also apparent. We have expressed the HAP1 cDNA in E. coli mutants lacking exonuclease III (xth), endonuclease IV (nfo), or both AP endonucleases. The HAP1 protein can substitute for exonuclease III, but not for endonuclease IV, in respect of some, but not all, DNA repair and mutagenesis functions. Moreover, a dut xth (ts) double mutant, which is nonviable at 42 degrees C due to an accumulation of unrepaired AP sites following excision of uracil from DNA, was rescued by expression of the HAP1 cDNA. These results indicate that AP endonucleases show remarkable conservation of both primary sequence and function. We would predict that the HAP1 protein is important in human cells for protection against the toxic and mutagenic effects of DNA damaging agents.

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Last modification of this entry: Oct. 6, 2010

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