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"cDNA cloning, sequencing, expression and possible domain structure of human APEX nuclease homologous to Escherichia coli exonuclease III."

Seki S, Hatsushika M, Watanabe S, Akiyama K, Nagao K, Tsutsui K

Published July 15, 1992 in Biochim Biophys Acta volume 1131 .

Pubmed ID: 1627644

cDNA encoding the human homologue of mouse APEX nuclease was isolated from a human bone-marrow cDNA library by screening with cDNA for mouse APEX nuclease. The mouse enzyme has been shown to possess four enzymatic activities, i.e., apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, 3'-5' exonuclease, DNA 3'-phosphatase and DNA 3' repair diesterase activities. The cDNA for human APEX nuclease was 1420 nucleotides long, consisting of a 5' terminal untranslated region of 205 nucleotide long, a coding region of 954 nucleotide long encoding 318 amino acid residues, a 3' terminal untranslated region of 261 nucleotide long, and a poly(A) tail. Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of APEX nuclease purified from HeLa cells showed that the mature enzyme lacks the N-terminal methionine. The amino acid sequence of human APEX nuclease has 94% sequence identity with that of mouse APEX nuclease, and shows significant homologies to those of Escherichia coli exonuclease III and Streptococcus pneumoniae ExoA protein. The coding sequence of human APEX nuclease was cloned into the pUC18 SmaI site in the control frame of the lacZ promoter. The construct was introduced into BW2001 (xth-11, nfo-2) strain and BW9109 (delta xth) strain cells of E. coli. The transformed cells expressed a 36.4 kDa polypeptide (the 317 amino acid sequence of APEX nuclease headed by the N-terminal decapeptide derived from the part of pUC18 sequence), and were less sensitive to methylmethanesulfonate and tert-butyl-hydroperoxide than the parent cells. The N-terminal regions of the constructed protein and APEX nuclease were cleaved frequently during the extraction and purification processes of protein to produce the 31, 33 and 35 kDa C-terminal fragments showing priming activities for DNA polymerase on acid-depurinated DNA and bleomycin-damaged DNA. Formation of such enzymatically active fragments of APEX nuclease may be a cause of heterogeneity of purified preparations of mammalian AP endonucleases. Based on analyses of the deduced amino acid sequence and the active fragments of APEX nuclease, it is suggested that the enzyme is organized into two domains, a 6 kDa N-terminal domain having nuclear location signals and 29 kDa C-terminal, catalytic domain.

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Last modification of this entry: Oct. 6, 2010

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